In recent years considerable advances have been made worldwide in the design and construction of sprayed concrete tunnel linings. Included in these advances has been the move away from traditional support using heavy rolled steel arches in linings, to lighter, more manageable lattice girders, steel mesh and/or steel
Abstract. This paper presents an evaluation of the structural performance of tetragonal lattice girders for NATM tunnel construction. H-shaped steel ribs and triangular lattice girders have been widely used as a temporary support for NATM tunneling.